Friday, November 15, 2019

Challenges and Techniques of the Oil Industry

Challenges and Techniques of the Oil Industry The Oil Sand Energy availability and economic progress go hand in hand. It is not possible to achieve economic progress in the absence of cheap, reliable energy availability. The use of energy on the part of society has increased systematically over the past two centuries, since the time of the industrial revolution. And there is no end in sight to the increase in the consumption of energy. This will continue because as global population continues to increase and especially in some of the emerging countries like China and India, the consumption of energy is bound to increase exponentially. In the past fifty years, global energy consumption has increased monotonously and how is this demand satisfied? This demand is being meet primarily with crude oil. Crude oil has been the largest energy component since 1960 and grew very rapidly in the 1970s and ever since, has grown less rapidly. Though oil has been losing ground but nevertheless, it remains the most important source of energy, second being coal, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Oil is a fossil fuel and the world is about 80 to 85% dependent on fossil fuels for our energy supply. This is a challenge because when fossil fuels are burnt, they emit CO2 in the atmosphere and since CO2 is a greenhouse gas, it contributes to global warming Oil is a mix of hydrocarbons that are liquid under atmospheric conditions. The fact that they are liquid allows for easier processing, transportation, storage, and has a higher content of energy per volume. These are the greatest advantages that oil has over other energy resources.   However, there are scenarios where the oil is not trapped in a cap rocks and forces it way out to the surface, or very close to the surface of the ground, at which point, the lighter molecules evaporate into the atmosphere and what is left are heavier molecules, which are normally called extra heavy oil or bitumen. This is known as Oil sands or Tar sand and it is made up of a mixture of sand, water, clay, and bitumen[1]. Oil sands or Tar sand are found in various countries throughout the world, but the vast quantities of oil sand reserves are found in Canada and Venezuela, according to EIA. Alberta, Canada, is estimated to have about 1.7 to 2.5 trillion barrels of oil sand reserve, thus, represent ing the largest single reserve of oil in the world.[2] Accordingly, Canada produced about 3.8 million barrel per day of crude oil, in 2014 alone. Of this, 2.2 million barrel per day was produced from the oil sands.[3] About 10% of the worlds oil reserves are located in the Alberta oil sands and about 96 percent of Canadas total oil reserves are contained in the oil sands.[4] Moreover, Canada is said to be the leading supplier of crude oil and refined oil products to the United States and the trend continues to grow in terms of percentage of US oil imports. About 60 percent of Canadas production capacity from oil sand, about 1.34 million barrels per day is exported to the US.[5] Energy as found in nature needs to mined, processed, refined and transported before it is available for end use. Unlike oil produced by conventional oil drilling which is generally less dense than water, extracting oil from oil sands is more complex. There are two methods for getting bitumen out of the ground and turning it into usable products in-situ and open pit mining. The extraction method used will depend on how deep the oil sand deposits are below the surface. Both methods are complex, energy-intensive and expensive processes. In-situ (in place) In-situ extraction process is used to mine bitumen that lies deep below the surface of the ground (greater than 75 meters underground). According to studies, about 80% of oil sands reserves in Canada are accessible via in-situ techniques.[6] The in-situ method normally uses a process called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD). This method requires the drilling of two horizontal wells; one is used for injecting steam into the oil sand deposit to heat the oil sand making the bitumen to become more fluid and easy to flow more easily. The second well is used to pump out the flowing bitumen to the surface.[7] Open-Pit Mining Like the conventional oil mining Open-pit mining is used when mining oil sand reserves that are closer to the surface of the ground (less than 75 meters below the ground). According to industry report, 20% of oil sand reserves in Canada are extracted using this mining technique.[8] With this method, trees and top layer of soil are cleared, large shovels are used to scoop the oil sand, which is mix of sand, water and bitumen into large trucks and then moved it to onsite processing facility, where hot water is added to this mixture of sand, clay, bitumen, in a large separation vessel. Bitumen froth is forced to rise to the surface, during the separation process and then removed and diluted with chemicals.[9] Normally, the spent sand and other materials that are recovered during this process is then returned to the mines to fill in empty space that has been mined as a way of reclamation Upgrading Once the Bitumen is recovered from either through open-pit or from in-situ operation, the viscous substance is then processed in order to make it easier to transport through pipelines to various refinery, where it is to be used as feedstock. This process is called upgrade. The purpose of upgrading is to transform bitumen into synthetic crude oil, a high quality, light sweet crude oil, by removing carbon and adding hydrogen and chemical to bitumen.[10] Typically the upgrading process comes in two phases namely primary and secondary upgrading. The primary upgrading involves breaking down the heavy molecules of bitumen into lighter and less viscous molecules. The secondary upgrading is used to further cleanse and purify the bitumen attained from primary phase. This phase involves removing other impurities such as nitrogen, Sulphur, and trace metals and get it ready for oil refineries.[11] Refining The bitumen is finally delivered to through pipelines the refinery through pipelines. The SCO product is then sent to a downstream refinery for conversion into final product.[12] Here the oil is processed and converted into final products like gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, plastics, asphalt and other consumer and industrial products. Environmental Challenges The mining and processing of oil sands present a variety of environmental impacts, such as global warming and greenhouse gas emissions, disturbance of land structure, and air and water quality. It also may have significant social and economic impactson local communities. Another major concern is related to the tremendous amount of water required for oil sands development -extraction, upgrading and refining. It is estimated that the process requires an average of three barrels of water for one barrel of oil produced,[13] though some of the water are be recycled. The major environmental challenges to oil sand extraction among others are land, water, air: Land Development of oil sand crate concern about the accumulation of large amounts of residual waste known as tailings. Tailing, which contain a mix of water, clay, un-recovered bitumen, and dissolved chemicals, including some organic compounds are considered to be extremely toxic and very hazardous to the environment. Moreover, the tailings are stored in large ponds and causes seepage into the surrounding landscape, though the water released from the ponds can be recycled and reused, however, most still remains as mud almost indefinitely. The massive activities associated with oil sand project are also known to create tremendous structural disturbances of the landscape including seismic exploration and construction of wells, roads pipelines etc. negatively impact the environment and endangers the wildlife. Water Since oil sand is made up of a mixture of sand, water, clay and bitumen, a hot water process is required to separates the bitumen from the associated sand, water, clay and minerals. The process takes enormous amount of water of fresh water to produce a barrel of bitumen from mined oil sands. In many cases, the water is sourced from ground water aquifers. Rapid expansion of oil sands projects are causing great strains on fresh water resources, which leads to ecological and environmental problems.[14] Also, since bitumen is denser than water, it can be harder to clean up when there is a spill. Additionally, oil sands mining operations produce huge amounts of toxic waste, known as tailings, which consist of water, sand, silt, clay, hydrocarbons and contaminants.   The contaminates may contain various levels of naphthenic acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic compounds, ammonia and mercury etc., some of which, according to International Agency for Research on Cancer an d the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, are known to be cancer-causing agent.[15] Even worst, the tailings are mostly stored in ponds or man-made dams, thus causing the tailing to leak into ground water and surrounding water resources. It is estimated that about four billion liters of tailings leak each year, thereby triggering immense environment devastation.[16] Air Extracting Oil sands require a substantial amount of energy in processing to process, upgrading and refining bitumen to the final products suitable for market. The entire development process is so energy intensive that it contributes immensely in carbon emissions. Reports suggest that the oil sand industry is among the highest contributors of national air emissions in Canada. Oil is produced to be consumed, more than half of the oil consumed in the world is for transportation fueling societys unquenchable demand for mobility. More than 50 percent of oil produced is used for transportation needs.[17]. As the worlds population grows, so will the global passenger mobility, global freight and transportation volumes. Additionally, the current global rise in urbanization, the global economic growth, as well as high level of economic development are other important factors prompting the increase in demand for oil. As fossil fuel, final oil products are burnt for energy through the various applications for which they are used. When burnt, they emit high amounts of harmful emissions, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and particles that drift into the atmosphere and contribute to air pollution. Carbon dioxide and water vapor, along with other gases such as ozone and nitrous oxide, are known greenhouse gases and the increasing amounts of these greenhouse g ases in the atmosphere are linked to global warming and could have disastrous environmental consequences.[18] However, since the business of producing oil from oil sand is base generally on oil price, chances are that there will be some slowdown in sand oil operations around the world, as oil prices decline. Due to the recent downward trend of oil prices, the economic viability and financial attractiveness of oil sands projects have also declined. Financial analysts including those from Goldman Sachs and Total have concluded that oil sands projects require long-term prices in excess of $80/barrel to break even[19]. Deutsche Bank and BP, among others, have raised doubts about the future of investing in oil sand and Shell Oil has significantly scaled back its oil sands plans[20]. If these phenomena should continue, it might be the preeminent way in reducing and mitigating the environmental degradation being caused by oil sand. [1] http://www.canadasoilsands.ca/en/what-are-the-oil-sands/recovering-the-oil [2] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy [3] lbid [4] www.oilsandsmagazine.com/technical/oilsands-101 [5] Kenny Bruno, Bruce Baizel, Susan Casey-Lefkowitz, Elizabeth Shope, and Kate Colarulli, Tax Sands Invasion: How Dirty and Expensive Oil from Canada Threatens Americas New Energy Economy (May 2010) [6] http://www.suncor.com/about-us/oil-sands [7] http://www.canadasoilsands.ca/en/what-are-the-oil-sands/recovering-the-oil [8] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy [9] http://www.canadasoilsands.ca/en/what-are-the-oil-sands/recovering-the-oil [10] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy [11] lbid [12] http://www.oilsandsmagazine.com/technical/oilsands-101 [13] http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy [14] lbid [15] Kenny Bruno, Bruce Baizel, Susan Casey-Lefkowitz, Elizabeth Shope, and Kate Colarulli, Tax Sands Invasion: How  Ãƒâ€šÃ‚   Dirty and Expensive Oil from Canada Threatens Americas New Energy Economy (May 2010) [16] lbid [17] https://www.iea.org [18] Kenny Bruno, Bruce Baizel, Susan Casey-Lefkowitz, Elizabeth Shope, and Kate Colarulli, Tax Sands Invasion: How Dirty and Expensive Oil from Canada Threatens Americas New Energy Economy (May 2010) [19] lbid [20] lbid

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Productivity Amidst Chaos? Essay examples -- Essays Papers

Productivity Amidst Chaos? The Tragedy of Urban Public Schools Urban America has been deteriorating for decades. Plagued with poverty, crime, and unemployment, it is a wonder that educational institutions exist at all. The present state of urban public schools is quite disheartening. With issues to face such as inadequate facilities, widespread violence and rising drop out rates it is no longer a question of who will succeed, it is a question of who will survive. Urban schools have become institutions well skilled in the desensitizing of its students to the importance of the qualities that an education should embody: idealism, imagination and creativity. Author Jonathan Kozol suggests in Savage Inequalities that public schools promote nothing but inequalities among students. In actuality, finding the root of this problem is much more involved. The problems in urban public schools are as interconnected as a spider's intricate web. Every strand connects to another and so on, until the problem is not merely one segment of the web, but the web itsel f. Every problem facing urban public schools is intrinsically related to one another. In order to isolate the underlying issue it is necessary to define the one element broad enough to encompass the widest possible range of solutions. Kozol's analysis depicts inequality as the blanket that covers every single problem in urban schools. More realistically, inequality is merely a strand in the overall web of problems in which America has become entangled. The most pressing issue in today's urban public school system is the decayed state of the environment in which students are forced to learn. The scenes are nightmarish, "One would not have thought that children in America would ever... ...l speaks of "savage" inequalities: "there is a deep-seated reverence for fair play in the United States†¦ but this is not the case in education, health care, or inheritance of wealth. In these elemental areas we want the game to be unfair and we have made it so; and it will likely so remain" (Kozol 223). For the past several decades, America has pushed the problems in the education system out of the public eye. The web of uncertainties has since grown so large that it becomes impossible to escape one without charging headfirst into another. The only escape is to start for the beginning: cut all ties, and although it is discouraging, allow the old system to fade away. By consciously placing the failure in the past, it then becomes possible to take responsibility for the damage done and move decisively toward building better learning environments for future generations.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Porter Airlines Swot Analysis Essay

TCAA (Billy Bishop City Airport) – The location of this airport, combined with the TCAA/Porter strategic partnership offered significant advantages to Porter. Owning airport infrastructure allowed Porter to better handle operational coast and better control the customer experience. Fleet – Only using a single aircraft (Bombardier Q400 with 35%) resulted in cost savings in maintenance, training, employee pay rate and airport fees. Amenities – In flight and airport value-added services fortify Porter’s brand help attract target market. Weakness Brand Awareness in America – Porter’s international strength lies in Canadian customers flying to the U.S. It is much more costly to attract American passengers heading to Canada. Developing awareness in the U.S. could be very costly. No U.S. customs pre-clearance – passengers must pass through customs upon arrival. This can cause delays and inconvenience to customers. Opportunities Customer Loyalty – The highly flexible fare structure Porter offers to customers is very appealing to business travelers who need to travel on short notice and often rearrange their travel plans. Porter also offers the VIPorter customer reward program. Free travel is very appealing to frequent travelers. Corporate Focus – Combine with large companies whose employees travel frequently. Offer these companies a reduced price and high frequency of flights based on certain popular business routes. Threats Competition – Air Canada has sufficient market share to attempt to undercut Porter and push it out of the market by using very low prices and frequent –flyer programs much like they did against City Express in the early 1990’s. Generating Capital – Growth requires enormous capital in the Airline industry. As a private company, Porter’s financial performance is unknown. This could make it very difficult to raise capital without releasing important performance information. Air Canada Law Suit – A federal court is to rule on whether or not Jazz was pushed off of the Island Unfairly. If Jazz is permitted to return to the island they could compete directly with Porter and will likely undercut Porter as they did with City Express.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Brennan Surname Meaning and Origin

Brennan Surname Meaning and Origin One of Irelands most frequent surnames, Brennan generally derived as a form of one of several Irish language surnames: From the Irish  Ãƒâ€œ Braonin, meaning descendant of  Braonn.  The Irish personal name Braonn is believed to mean sorrow, from the Irish  braon, meaning moisture or drop.From the Irish names Mac Branin and Ó Branin, both meaning descendant of Brann,  from the given name Brann, derived from  bran, meaning little raven. The Mac Branin were chiefs of a large territory in present-day County Roscommon, and many of the Brennan families in the counties of Mayo, Sligo and Roscommon descend from them. The OBrennans were chiefs of the  Uà ­ Duach sept located in northern Osraighe (Ossory), which  included all of county Kilkenny and part of county Laois. Brennan is one of 50 common Irish surnames of modern Ireland.   Surname Origin:  Irish Alternate Surname Spellings:  BRENNEN, MCBRENNAN, MACBRENNAN, BRANNON, BRANNAN, BRANNEN, BRANNIN, OBRAONAIN, BRANNY Where do People with the Surname BRENNAN Live? Irish Brennan families were very widespread, settling in Fermanagh, Galway, Kerry, Kilkenny, and Westmeath. According to WorldNames publicprofiler, individuals with the Brennan last name are now found in largest numbers in central Ireland, especially in County Sligo and the province of Leinster. The surname is much less common in Northern Ireland. Famous People with the Surname BRENNAN Walter Brennan - American actor, veteran of over 100 filmsWillie Brennan - Irish highwayman of legend, immortalized by Brennan on the MoorWilliam J. Brennan Jr. - former US Supreme Court justiceMaeve Brennan - Irish short story writer and journalist Genealogy Resources for the Surname BRENNAN The Brennans of ConnachtPat Brennan has put together a great deal of information on the origins of the Brennan surname, genealogies of early Brennan families, a list of MacBranan chiefs, and history of the families after the famine. British Surname Profiler - Distribution of the Brennan SurnameTrace the geography and history of the Brennan surname through this free online database based on a University College London (UCL) project investigating the distribution of surnames in Great Britain, both current and historic. Brennan Family Genealogy ForumSearch this popular genealogy forum for the Brennan surname to find others who might be researching your ancestors, or post your own Brennan surname query. FamilySearch - BRENNAN GenealogyAccess over 1.9 million free historical records and lineage-linked family trees posted for the Brennan surname and its variations. BRENNAN Surname Family Mailing ListsRootsWeb hosts several free mailing lists for researchers of the Brennan surname. DistantCousin.com - BRENNAN Genealogy Family HistoryFree databases and genealogy links for the last name Brennan. Looking for the meaning of a given name? Check out First Name Meanings Cant find your last name listed? Suggest a surname to be added to the Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins. - References: Surname Meanings Origins Cottle, Basil. Penguin Dictionary of Surnames. Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books, 1967. Menk, Lars. A Dictionary of German Jewish Surnames. Avotaynu, 2005. Beider, Alexander. A Dictionary of Jewish Surnames from Galicia. Avotaynu, 2004. Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford University Press, 1989. Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford University Press, 2003. Smith, Elsdon C. American Surnames. Genealogical Publishing Company, 1997. Back to Glossary of Surname Meanings Origins

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Scream essays

Scream essays Edvard Munchs The Scream was painted in the end of the 19th century, and is possibly the first Expressionist painting. The Scream was very different from the art of the time, when many artists tried to depict objective reality. Munch was a tortured soul, and it certainly showed in this painting. Most of his family had died, and he was often plagued by sickness. The Scream was not a reflection of what was going on at the time, but rather, Munchs own inner hell. It visualizes a desperate aspect of fin-de-sicle: anxiety and apocalypse. The persuasiveness of the motif shows that it also speaks to our day and age (Whaley 75 ). When Edvard Munch was asked what had inspired him to do this painting, he replied, One evening I was walking along a path, the city on one side of me and the fjord below. I felt tired and ill. I stopped and looked out across the fjord. The sun was setting, the clouds were turning blood red. I felt a scream passing through nature. It seemed to me that I could hear The Scream. I painted this picture; painted the clouds as real blood. The colors screamed (Preble 52). Some people, when they look at this painting, only see a person screaming. They see the pretty blend of colors, but dont actually realize what they are looking at. A lone emaciated figure halts on a bridge clutching his ears, his eyes and mouth open wide in a scream of anguish. Behind him a couple are walking together in the opposite direction. Barely discernible in the swirling motion of a red-blood sunset and deep blue-black fjord, are tiny boats at sea, and the suggestion of town buildings ( Preble 53). This painting was definitely the first of its kind, the first Expressionist painting. People say that a picture is worth a thousand words. If thats the case, then The Scream is worth a million. It has a message that no other painting of its time...

Monday, November 4, 2019

STOPS AND FRISKS Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

STOPS AND FRISKS - Term Paper Example The Fourth Amendment permits the law enforcement officers to protect themselves and the public against the suspected criminals in the event that they suspect probable criminal activity. The police officers can carry out the stops even when an apparent cause for arrest does not exist. It is regarded as unreasonable for a legal authority or person to deny a law enforcement officer the power and the right to take necessary actions to ascertain whether or not a suspected individual is armed. These steps taken by the police officers are important because they help the officers to neutralize the harm threat (Ferdico, Fradella, and Totten 295). Stops and frisks infringe on the privacy of individuals. In addition, these practices are administered under the guidance of the Constitution that hinders unreasonable searches and arrests. As a result, the practices of stops and frisks are weighed against a less strict standard than those applicable to arrests and searches. This is because stops have limited scope than arrests. Similarly, frisks are limited in scope compared to full searches (Ferdico, Fradella, and Totten 297). The challenge that the officers encounter during their practice is determining the reasonableness of the circumstance under which an individual should be stopped and frisked in the event that there is a lack of possible cause to arrest. The police officers, therefore, need to balance the competing interests entailed in the stops and frisks circumstances to determine the sensibleness of the situation. The common competing interests involved in such situations include the right of every citizen to privacy and the right to be free from unreasonable searches and arrests. The above-mentioned interests should be weighed against the interest of the government to effectively detect and prevent crimes besides protecting the law enforcers and other individuals from armed and dangerous people (Ferdico,

Friday, November 1, 2019

Elderly Receive Free Bus Rides Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Elderly Receive Free Bus Rides - Essay Example Elderly Receive Free Bus Rides These programs are either in operation or are going to become operational soon, the question here to be asked is why seniors throughout the world should have access to such discounts. Several policy makers have time and again given importance to the question and due to various reasons such policies related to free travelling for seniors have been created. Body Studies conducted in different areas and locations show that seniors live longer and healthy if their activity level is high, and in order to increase the quality of life of seniors it should be the first priority of policy makers to give seniors access to free transportation so they can easily move from one place to another and increase their activity level (Nussbaum 122). During the period of 2006, seniors living in the region of England were offered free of cost travelling as soon as the rush hours of weekdays used to end and throughout the weekends (BBC News 20120. This policy is under scrutiny and policy makers are thinkin g of ending the policy. According to a study conducted by Sophie Coronini-Cronberg on the senior citizens of the England, showed that people who had access to free bus passes participated highly in traveling from one end to another through means of walking, public transportation and cycling (U.K. Government Online 2012). The research further suggested that the free ride passes did not only benefit the poor in the community, it even benefited the rich within the community. The research results even showed that those individuals who were car owners participated less in active traveling activities. Active travelling has been associated with better health and exercise, people mostly around the world hate exercising or they do not get enough time to exercise. But if the use of public transport, especially busses increase they will start walking from their homes to buss stands and such travelling activities will assist them in complying with the exercises they have been recommended by phy sicians. According to a research conducted in Britain, when adults participate in active travelling such as travelling from their homes and offices to bus stands, they are able to fulfill certain portion of their recommended exercises (AlphaGalileo 2012). According to Santos those senior citizen that take part in active travelling and physical activities end up with better quality of life, have better mental fitness and are able to participate in economic activities which helps the government in keeping their expenses low as seniors work and do not require government aid (Fleischer 2002). Seniors that are mentally fit easily find jobs due to their experience, this helps them in becoming dependant on their families and their families do not have to think of them as burden. Death rate of senior citizens have even been linked with physical activity, studies show that those senior individuals who participate in physical activities are at a 12% lesser risk of loosing their lives as soon as they cross the age of 60 (Harbert 23). Before policy makers decide to cancel free bus trips and travelling for senior citizens, they should look at the costs associated with doing so. Medical expenses are on a rise, seniors need great amount of medical attention as at their age they experience various health diseases and if free bus rides